Complex systems, New Sustainable Business Models, CSR and Multi-Criteria Decision Aid

New Sustainable Business Models
Since the development of the three-dimensional corporate sustainability model (Caroll, 1979) and a concept of a triple bottom line (Elkington, 1994), businesses, NGOs and international organisations started to look beyond pure economic profitability to bring new dimensions in the corporate decision-making. Inspired by the Rio 1992 United Nations Summit (UN, 1992), the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and the UN Global Compact were founded to promote corporate sustainability action (UN Global Compact, 2019). Corporate

Sustainability Reporting has become a new tool to communicate business contributions towards economic, social and environmental well-being. New international standards emerged, including the Global Reporting Initiative
(GRI, 2018) and the International Standards Organisation ISO 26000 (ISO, 2010). The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted at the Rio+20 Summit (UN, 2015) have become an instrument to facilitate the global transition towards sustainability.

The role of business in reversing the global trends manifested in accelerating climate change, destruction of ecosystems and growing resource use and waste disposal will be pivotal as governments and international organisations alone cannot reach the SDGs (WWF, 2018). In fact, according to the Guardian, only 20 companies
are "responsible" for more than half of the global CO2 emissions (Guardian, 2019). On the other hand, 70% of the companies fail to disclose the impacts of their activities on deforestation (CDP, 2019).

The Better Business, Better World Report identifies 'sustainable development' as a major business opportunity worth 12 trln by 2030 (Business and Sustainable Development Commission, 2017). New business opportunities emerge in the field of impact investing, green bonds, renewable energy, smart and sustainable cities, low carbon economy, circular economy, which will allow to embrace a more holistic thinking and aim to go beyond the simple economic logic to achieve the triple bottom line or the simultaneous improvement in social, environmental and economic domains.

Despite the wide international promotion of SDGs, only 13% of companies are taking action addressing the SDGs of Life below water (Goal 14); only 20% are acting to improve Life on land (Goal 15); only 28% are addressing Peace, justice and strong institutions (Goal 16); only 32% deal with Clean water and sanitation (Goal 6); only 34% address the subject of Sustainable Cities and Communities (Goal 11); only 39% act to reduce inequalities (Goal 10) and only 49% undertake climate actions (Goal13) (UN Global Compact, 2019).

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